A student observes that she’s always sleepy shortly after eating lunch, and she wants to be able to pay better attention in her mid-afternoon class. She tried doing 10 jumping jacks just before the class, but still felt sleepy around the middle of the class.

Biology Semester 1 Assignment Student Name: Student ID: • A student observes that she’s always sleepy shortly after eating lunch, and she wants to be able to pay better attention in her mid-afternoon class. She tried doing 10 jumping jacks just before the class, but still felt sleepy around the middle of the class. The next day, she tried sipping water throughout the class and found that she could pay attention until the end of the class. The student now brings a water bottle to class. Identify how this student applied the scientific method to solve her problem. • The model of electrons orbiting around the nucleus like planets orbit the sun has been proven to be inaccurate. What’s a more accurate way to describe electron orbitals? • How do covalent bonds differ from ionic bonds? Describe how each of these bonds is formed. • Natural cycles circulate several resources. Describe the water cycle. What happens to water at each stage of the cycle, and what drives this cycle? • Toxoplasma is a protist that must infect cats to be able to reproduce. The infection doesn’t benefit cats and only rarely harms them. What type of symbiotic relationship is this, and why? • Compare and contrast the location and function of ribosomes in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. • Describe the structure of the plasma membrane. What structures are on the side of the membrane facing the environment, the side of the membrane facing the cell, and the inside of the membrane? • Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Which process yields more ATP? What’s the final electron acceptor in each process? • Compare and contrast meiosis and mitosis. How many daughter cells are produced by each, and how many chromosomes do they have? In what contexts do meiosis and mitosis occur? • Explain why cell cycle regulators are critical to the health of an organism. What can happen if cell division is allowed to proceed without being regulated? • A person without the allele for sickle cell anemia has children with a person who is a carrier for sickle cell anemia but doesn’t have the disease. What percentage of their children will have sickle cell anemia? What percentage of their children will be carriers for sickle cell anemia? Show your work with a Punnett square. You can copy/paste the blank table below or create a table in the submission box to complete the Punnett square. • Explain how the Hershey-Chase experiment used bacteriophages with radioactive sulfur and radioactive phosphorus to demonstrate that DNA, and not protein, is the carrier of genetic information. • What are the three main types of RNA involved in gene expression? Briefly describe the role of each of these types of RNA in gene expression. • Compare and contrast a frameshift mutation and a single nucleotide substitution mutation in a DNA sequence encoding a protein. How many nucleotides would be inserted or deleted in each? How many amino acids in the protein sequence would be altered in each? • Some types of muscular dystrophy are X-linked recessive disorders. A mother who is a carrier for muscular dystrophy has children with a father who doesn’t have muscular dystrophy. • What percentage of their sons will have the disease, and what percentage of their sons will be carriers? • What percentage of their daughters will have the disease, and what percentage of their daughters will be carriers? Show your work with a Punnett Square, using XD to represent the allele not associated with muscular dystrophy and Xd to represent the allele associated with muscular dystrophy. You can copy/paste the blank table below or create a table in the submission box to complete the Punnett square.

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