# the independent variable (IV) and dependent (DV) variables;

For the following hypotheses, determine the following:
1. Students who receive individually guided education will demonstrate greater gains in reading achievement than students who receive conventional instruction.
a) whether the hypothesis is directional, non-directional, or null;
b) the independent variable (IV) and dependent (DV) variables;
c) if the IV is categorical, then what are the categories; [if IV is continuous, simply state this; there will be no categories]; and
d) if the hypothesis is directional, then (1) which group is expected to have higher scores on the DV, or (2) is the relationship expected to be positive or negative? [Answer d1 if a difference study or d2 if a relationship study; do not answer both d1 and d2.]
e) Rewrite the hypothesis in the other two forms (e.g., if the hypothesis is directional, rewrite as both a non-directional and null hypotheses).
2. Above average height children are more often chosen as leaders by their classmates than are children below average height.
a) whether the hypothesis is directional, non-directional, or null;
b) the independent variable (IV) and dependent (DV) variables;
c) if the IV is categorical, then what are the categories; [if IV is continuous, simply state this; there will be no categories]; and
d) if the hypothesis is directional, then (1) which group is expected to have higher scores on the DV, or (2) is the relationship expected to be positive or negative? [Answer d1 if a difference study or d2 if a relationship study; do not answer both d1 and d2.]
e) Rewrite the hypothesis in the other two forms (e.g., if the hypothesis is directional, rewrite as both a non-directional and null hypotheses).