Sepsis is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when the body’s response to an infection damages its own tissues. When the infection-fighting processes turn on the body, they cause organs to function poorly and abnormally.

Make 2 Peer Responses
These should be substantial and provide new information and ideas.
peer responce 1
1. Provide a brief description of the pathophysiology of the disorder.
Sepsis is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when the body’s response to an infection damages its own tissues. When the infection-fighting processes turn on the body, they cause organs to function poorly and abnormally. Sepsis may progress to septic shock. This is a dramatic drop in blood pressure that can lead to severe organ problems and death. Early treatment with antibiotics and intravenous fluids improves chances for survival (Mayo Clinic,2018).
2. Discuss the nutritional needs for a patient with this disorder.
In early sepsis they suggest provision of trophic feeds (defined as 10–20 kcal/hour, up to 500 kcal/day) for the initial phase of sepsis, advancing as tolerated after 24–48 hours to >80% of target energy needs with early delivery of 1.2 to 2 g protein/kg/day (Wischmeyer, 2018). Patients with septic shock develop electrolyte abnormalities. Potassium, magnesium, and phosphate levels should be measured and corrected if deficient. Patients with septic shock generally have high protein and energy requirements. Although a brief period (several days) without nutrition does not cause deleterious effects, prolonged starvation must be avoided. Early nutritional support is of critical importance in patients with septic shock. The oral or enteral route is preferred, unless the patient has an ileus or other intestinal abnormality. Gastroparesis is commonly observed and can be treated by administering motility agents or placing a small-bowel feeding tube (Medscape,2020).
3. Choose the nutritional treatment or diet plan the nurse would implement for a patient with this disorder.
Sometimes surgery is required to remove tissue damaged by the infection.
Doctors and nurses should treat sepsis with antibiotics as soon as possible. Antibiotics are critical tools for treating life-threatening infections, like those that can lead to sepsis. However, as antibiotic resistance grows, infections are becoming more difficult to treat. Antibiotic side effects range from minor, such as rash, dizziness, nausea, diarrhea, and yeast infections, to very severe health problems, such as life-threatening allergic reactions or C. difficile (also called C. diff) infection, which causes severe diarrhea that can lead to severe colon damage or death. However, when you need antibiotics, the benefits outweigh the risks of side effects or antibiotic resistance. Improving the way healthcare professionals prescribe antibiotics, and the way we take antibiotics, helps keep us healthy now, helps fight antibiotic resistance, and ensures that these lifesaving drugs will work for you or others when they are needed most, like for treating infections associated with sepsis (CDC,2019).
CDC. (2019, July 23). How is sepsis diagnosed and treated? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (Links to an external site.)
Mayo Clinic. (2018). Sepsis – Symptoms and causes. Mayo Clinic; (Links to an external site.)
Wischmeyer, P. E. (2018). Nutrition Therapy in Sepsis. Critical Care Clinics, 34(1), 107–125. (Links to an external site.)
peer responce 2
Celiac disease is characterized as an intestinal inflammatory disease and it is triggered by dietary gluten, a protein that is found in wheat, barley and rye. Celiac disease can actually be associated with other autoimmune diseases but most commonly with rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, and thyroid disease (Lewis et al., 2017).
It could lead to weight loss, muscle wasting, and other factors leading to malnutrition. Abnormal serum folate, iron, and cobalamin levels can occur. It can manifest as foul-smelling diarrhea, abdominal pain, flatulence, abdominal distention, and malnutrition(Parzanese et al., 2017). There could be individuals who pose no GI signs or symptoms, but actually may complain of joint pain, osteoporosis, fatigue, and reproductive problems (Lewis et al., 2017). This disease actually affects protein, fat and carbohydrate absorption. Iron deficiency anemia is common in those suffering from celiac disease.
Inadequate calcium intake and vitamin D absorption can lead to decreased bone density and osteoporosis. Teach the patient to avoid wheat, barley, oats, and rye products. Although pure oats do not contain wheat rye and barley, it can actually be contaminated during the process (Lewis et al., 2017). Teach the patient the importance of reading medication and food labels as they may include additives or stabilizers that can contain gluten.
You can include a list of approved locations and good resources online to help the individual find gluten free options. The nutritional needs for this client would include avoiding the consumption of foods containing gluten. This can include wheat, rye, and barley. The patient is approved to eat foods such as unflavored milk, yogurt, tapioca, soy products, butter, fresh fruits, flour, rice, and peanut butter.
The patient should avoid baked good including muffins, cookies, cakes, pies, and barley including wheat bread and potato bread, flour gluten stabilizers, oats, pasta, pizza, bagels, and rye should definitely be avoided. As healthcare professionals, it is important to formulate a nutritional plan that is specific to our clients.
Lewis, S., Bucher, L., Heitkemper, M., Harding, M. (2017). Medical Surgical Nursing: Assessment and Management of Clinical Problems (10th Ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier
Parzanese, I., Qehajaj, D., Patrinicola, F., Aralica, M., Chiriva-Internati, M., Stifter, S., Elli, L., & Grizzi, F. (2017). Celiac disease: From pathophysiology to treatment. World journal of gastrointestinal pathophysiology, 8(2), 27–38.

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