# Describe and explain what is deductive reasoning and what is inductive reasoning.

Instructions: Your first post in this discussion must be 250 words. It must be made in the first week of class by 11:59pm ET on Sunday. It is used to confirm your entry into the course. Please respond to more than 2 other students. Responses should be a minimum of 100 words and include direct questions. If you do not write a 250 word first post in this discussion within the first week, you will be dropped from the course.
First Post
Deductive reasoning is very straight forward and is labeled as having one correct answer. This is very important as it uses language that use key words. When writing and researching it is important to understand if the author writing style is using deductive reasoning or inductive reasoning. The first step in the process of deductive reasoning is the intimal assumption of a statement. Once that statement is made a second premises is formed based off the first. Third the test phase comes into play to wrap up with a conclusion. “This kind of speculation is often tempting, but one must avoid presenting it as fact. There may also be times where the data seems to fit, but without definitive proof, one should avoid making definitive statements about a larger population” (2012). The best way I was able to process it was with looking at examples. A deductive reasoning example is all Airforce officers have a college degree. Therefore, I must have a college degree to become an office in the Airforce.
On the flip side looking at inductive reasoning uses the opposite rules and theory. Probably and likely are two keys words that should trigger this type or reasoning. In short using your past experiences and knowledge, you can form conclusions. Generalizing based on what you know is the way forward. However, it is important to note that regardless of either reasoning used, it does not automatically make it 100% right. Based on my past research I would be applying that deductive and Inductive reasoning as a 50 – 50 splits on research uses. It really comes down to what the research is on. A simple survey to gather data and make decisions based off the data for the world would be inductive reasoning. Comparing and contrasting between the material this week and knowledge is interesting. On the compare side they are both straight forward and use key words. Reflecting on contrast the two reasoning are total opposites on how it works. I am looking for good feedback because I think the more its talked about the better it is to understand deductive and inductive reasoning.
Post two
Describe and explain what is deductive reasoning and what is inductive reasoning.
Deductive reasoning is easy to understand, deductive reasoning starts with asserting a rule or a theory, then with a second premise and a third premise and if all the given premises are true, then the conclusion is also true. It starts with a general statement and then progresses into a specific conclusion. Deductive reasoning is one of the most basic forms of valid reasoning, deductive reasoning is used in the scientific process to reach a logical conclusion, in other words deductive reasoning means testing theories. Theories that are results of inductive reasoning.
Inductive reasoning is when there is a lack of existing theories, inductive research is done because there is no theory to test. Inductive reasoning has three steps/stages. First, is an observation, second would be to observe a pattern and lastly, develop a theory. Inductive reasoning is limited in the way that a conclusion drawn from the basis of an inductive method cannot be proven, but it can be disproven/invalidated. Inductive reasoning is basically the opposite of deductive reasoning (making generalizations from specific observations) but these two can be mistaken for the other often times.
Compare and contrast your observations with the material from this week.
To be honest, I had to read multiple sources to fully understand the difference between the two as they are in a way similar and different sides of a coin. Deductive is easier to understand as it has one answer that is always definite. Meanwhile inductive reasoning, from my understanding is what you start with to form theories which will in turn be used in deductive reasoning.
Do you feel that most research uses deductive reasoning or inductive reasoning?
I feel that most researches start with inductive reasoning as people in the beginning of time had to start with almost nothing, a lot of scientific laws didn’t even exist until the 18th century and were mere theories or just ideas. The more we asked, the more we learned and that is an observable fact in human history.
Post three
1. Describe and explain what is deductive reasoning and what is inductive reasoning.
Deductive reasoning uses given information or assumptions to draw specific conclusions about the subjects in question. Reaching conclusions outside of those bounds with the information or assumptions is no longer deductive reasoning. If a conclusion can be reached with deductive reasoning, it is because that conclusion must be true. If it might be true, then there is a leap of logic or a lack of accuracy that precludes it from being deductive reasoning.
Inductive reasoning is the next step in that process. Taking information or assumptions and attempting to apply them outside the scope of the original data. To study and find that most dogs in Alaska are over 50lbs and use that to assume most dogs in the US are over 50lbs would be inductive reasoning. There would likely be population similarities that would attempt to justify this leap in logic, and it inherently is less accurate than the absolute certainty of deductive reasoning.
Hawthorne, J. (2018, March 19). Inductive logic. Retrieved July 30, 2021, from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-inductive/
2. Compare and contrast your observations with the material from this week.
My readings lined up very well with the technical definitions given in the material this week. They are both pretty cut and dry about what exactly each type of reasoning is. However, the attitude varied slightly. My link above calls deductive reasoning a “rigorous formal system” and repeatedly referred to it as the “logical” reasoning method. The class reading make it clear that deductive reasoning is absolute, but they did not take any stance on its value over inductive reasoning. Overall the tone that the text had was more objective, where my readings seemed to favor deductive reasoning as more valuable.
Nosich, G. M. (2012). Learning to think through: A guide to critical thinking across the curriculum. Boston: Pearson.
3. Do you feel that most research uses deductive reasoning or inductive reasoning?
I think that many large very public findings that might lack substance or skew headlines to attract clicks use inductive reasoning. I do not think the data collection or research behind those headlines necessarily do this, but they are then taken further by the public or a publisher trying to sell a story. I think that the majority of research is deductive, outlining a specific population and how that population was chosen for a study is common practice. Obscuring that information for publication is extremely suspect and would degrade any reliability the source had.