Race and officer decision making: Examining differences in arrest outcomes between black and white officers. Justice Quarterly

*Must use source from assigned reading which will be attached at the bottom.
In summarizing the readings, areas you should consider addressing include 1) What research question(s) were the author(s) addressing?; 2) Why was the research question relevant?; 3) How did the author(s) test their research question(s)?; 4)Where did the data come from?; 5) What variables were involved in their research?; 6) What did the author(s) find?; and, 7) What was important about the research findings? You do not need to touch on each of these issues, but they are examples of ones you could address in your paper.
At a minimum, your papers must address all assigned readings for this week. Do not include directly quoted material in your papers. All information in your papers must be paraphrased and properly cited in APA format in the text of your response and reference section. Remember the articles in the course schedule are in APA format, except they are bullet-pointed instead of being double-spaced with a hanging indent. You may include additional sources in your papers, but they are not required. If you do include additional sources, they too must be cited appropriately in APA format.
Assigned Readings
Brown, R. A., & Frank, J. (2006). Race and officer decision making: Examining differences in arrest outcomes between black and white officers. Justice Quarterly, 23(1), 96–126.
Brunson, R. K., & Miller, J. (2006). Young black men and urban policing in the United States. British Journal of Criminology, 46(4), 613–640.
Kochel, T. R., Wilson, D. B., & Mastrofski, S. D. (2011). Effect of suspect race on officers’ arrest decisions. Criminology, 49(2), 473–512.
Novak, K. J. (2004). Disparity and racial profiling in traffic enforcement. Police Quarterly, 7(1), 65–96.
Menifield, C. & Shin, G. (2019). Do white law enforcement officers target minority suspects? Public Administration Review, 79(1), 56-68.
Spencer, K., Amanda K., Glaser, C. & Claser, J. (2016). Implicit Bias and Policing. Social and Personality Psychology, 10(1), 50-63.
Assigned Readings
Klinger, D. A. (1997). Negotiating order in patrol work: An ecological theory of police response to deviance. Criminology, 35(2), 277–306.
Klinger, D., Rosenfeld, R., Isom, D., & Deckard, M. (2016). Race, crime, and the micro-ecology of deadly force. Criminology & Public Policy, 15(1), 193–222.
Liederbach, J., & Travis, L. F. (2008). Wilson redux: Another look at varieties of police behavior. Police Quarterly, 11(4), 447–467.
Laniyonu, A. (2018). Coffee Shops and Street Cops: Policing Practices in Gentrifying Neighborhoods. Urban Affairs Review, 54(5), 898-930.
Terrill, W., & Reisig, M. D. (2003). Neighborhood context and police use of force. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40(3), 291–323.
Wilson, J. Q., & Kelling, G. L. (1982). Broken windows: The police and neighborhood safety. Atlantic Monthly, 249(3), 29–38. download

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